Tuesday, 27 September 2016

World Tourism Day 2016 --- “Tourism for all”

Since 1980, the United Nations World Tourism Organization has recognized September 27 as World Tourism Day. The purpose of this day is to raise awareness on the role of tourism within the international community and to demonstrate how it affects social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide. This year, the world is celebrating World Tourism Day with the theme:

“Tourism for all – promoting universal accessibility”

Tourism today is believed to be one of the largest industries in the world. The unmatched potential of tourism in a country’s economy, contribution on lasting peace and facilitating in international brotherhood and environmental awareness have already attracted many government and nations to welcome it.

Tourism industry is also a source of generation of employment. As a service industry, tourism requires an efficient and professional service-minded people. Thus, to be a part of this industry and to be a successful professional, it requires adequate knowledge, skills and expertise about the tourism system and its mechanism.

PHI Learning’s books in the area of tourism provides practical know-how about the travel and tourism management, while equal emphasis is laid on the theoretical aspects to cater to the needs of the students. 

Maximize your experience at the World Tourism Day with:


Monday, 26 September 2016

On the right to photocopy

The DU photocopy judgment is a victory for access to education. But is it successful in balancing the competing interests of the academic community and the copyright holders?
On September 16, the Delhi High Court dismissed the copyright infringement petition filed by three international publishers against a photocopy shop located in the Delhi University premises (The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford v. Rameshwari Photocopy Services). The court ruled that making course packs for suggested reading for students by photocopying portions of various prescribed reference books does not violate the copyright of the publishers.
Right to reproduction 
Section 14 of the Copyright Act, 1957, grants a bundle of exclusive rights such as the right to reproduction on copyright owners for commercial exploitation of the work. Making photocopies amounts to reproduction. Photocopies made in violation of Section 14 thus constitute infringement unless it is listed under Section 52 as an act not constituting infringement. The judgment holds that if any provision of the Act permits any person other than the owner to reproduce any work or substantial part thereof, such reproduction will not amount to infringement (Para 27).
The Copyright Act, to prevent stagnation of the growth of creativity, seeks to maintain a balance between the competing interests of the copyright owners on the one hand and the interests of the public to have access to works on the other. Copyright’s basic rationale is that there should be promotion of creativity through sufficient protection; and at the same time it also caters for dissemination of knowledge and access to copyright material through the doctrine of fair dealing. This doctrine, which is essential for research and academic purposes, is an exception to copyright holders’ exclusive rights. The Indian copyright law uses the term ‘fair deal’ (where listed purposes are statutorily embedded) whereas the U.S.’s copyright law adopts ‘fair use’ (which is merely illustrative). As per Article 13 of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement, these exceptions must confine to “special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder”. Since the term ‘fair dealing’ is not defined in the Act, the judiciary determines its scope on a case by case basis.
Fair dealing 
Section 52(1)(i) of the Copyright Act treats as fair dealing “the reproduction of any work (i) by a teacher or a pupil in the course of instruction; or (ii) as part of the questions to be answered in an exam; or (iii) in answers to such question. Section 52(1)(j) uses terms such as “staff and students of an educational institution” whereas Section 52(1)(i) uses “teacher or a pupil in the course of instruction.” On analysing this difference, the judgment holds that “there is no reason to interpret Section 52 (1)(i) as providing for an individual teacher and an individual pupil.” The word ‘instruction’ is not defined in the Act. According to Justice Rajiv Sahai Endlaw, the words “in the course of instruction” would include “reproduction of any work while the process of imparting instruction by the teacher and receiving instruction by the pupil continues during the entire academic session... imparting and receiving of instruction is not limited to personal interface between teacher and pupil but is a process commencing from the teacher readying herself/himself for imparting instruction, setting syllabus, prescribing text books, readings and ensuring, whether by interface in classroom/tutorials or otherwise...” Hence it would be fair dealing if the students click photographs of each page of portions of the prescribed book.

Copyright must increase and not impede the harvest of knowledge. When the judgment reads, “Copyright is to motivate the creative activity of authors in order to benefit the public”, what is left for the copyright owners? The judgment places no limitation on photocopy if the material is prescribed in the course of instruction. Copyright holders invest considerably in creating works. Can this be ignored while interpreting Section 52(1)(i) as a license for reproducing unlimitedly everything prescribed in the suggested reading? If the legislature had intended to give such a wide interpretation to the words “in the course of instruction”, why does it add, “as part of the questions to be answered in an exam or in answers to such question” which should also be covered automatically? If the suggested reading provides for the whole book, does Section 52(1)(i) permit reproduction of the whole book or only reasonable excerpts? The judgment has conveniently avoided any direct reference to this aspect. The Court Commissioner had reported that “8 books were found being photocopied cover to cover”. Was the court successful in balancing the competing interests of the academic community and the copyright holders? When the university is entitled to free photocopy of 3,000 pages every month(Para 4), can the possibility of commercial interest be overruled? In that context, does it comply with Article 13 of TRIPS? Is it justified to cover the private photocopy shop in the university premises within the expression “in the course of instruction”? Doesn’t the judgment provide blanket immunity to the university to meet the demands of all the students by purchasing a single book?
Undoubtedly, the judgment, which is a breakthrough in the Indian copyright jurisprudence, is a major victory to access to education in a developing country like India. It will certainly have a far-reaching impact in academic circles as well as on the copyright industry. When access to education itself is a challenge, none of the students can be expected to purchase expensive textbooks, especially when syllabi prescribe certain portions from various books. Universities are expected to cater to students’ reading requirement without prejudicing copyright holders’ legitimate economic interests. Are the Indian universities honestly utilising funds earmarked for libraries for that purpose? The students’ demands can be met reasonably by permitting reproduction of reasonable excerpts.

Friday, 23 September 2016

World University Rankings 2016-2017: results announced

World University Rankings 2016-2017: results announced

University of Oxford snatches top spot from Caltech in this year’s World University Rankings as Asia’s rise continues..

The University of Oxford has become the first UK university to top the Times Higher Education World University Rankings in the 12-year history of the table. It knocks the five-time leader, the California Institute of Technology, into second place in the World University Rankings 2016-2017.

Oxford’s success can be attributed to improved performances across the four main indicators underlying the methodology of the ranking – teaching, research, citations and international outlook. More specifically the institution’s total income and research income is rising faster than its staff numbers, its research is more influential, and it has been more successful at drawing in international talent.
But when looking at country level, nations in Asia stand out. Two new Asian universities make the top 100 (Chinese University of Hong Kong and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)), while another four join the top 200: City University of Hong Kong, University of Science and Technology of China, Fudan University and Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Furthermore, China’s two flagship universities have both made gains – Peking University joins the top 30 at 29th (up from 42nd last year), while Tsinghua University joins the top 40 at 35th (up from joint 47th). Asia’s leading institution, the National University of Singapore, is at 24th – its highest ever rank.
Meanwhile, India’s leading university – the Indian Institute of Science – is edging closer to the top 200, claiming a spot in the 201-250 band, its highest ever position.
Overall, 289 Asian universities from 24 countries make the overall list of 980 institutions and an elite group of 19 are in the top 200, up from 15 last year.
When analysing which countries achieve the highest average scores, Singapore comes top on all five of the pillars underlying the ranking – teaching, research, citations, industry income and international outlook. Hong Kong is second for teaching, third for research and fourth for citations.
Rajika Bhandari, deputy vice-president of research and evaluation at the Institute of International Education and co-editor of the book Asia: The Next Higher Education Superpower?, said that the “sharp rise” of Asia’s universities is due to three main factors: rapidly growing populations and demand for higher education in the region; governments making “significant investments” in universities; and improvements by individual institutions.
On advances at university level, she said that many Asian scholars who studied at Western universities are now academics in their home countries and have “really begun to transform their own higher education sectors”.
They have “brought back to [their] home campuses some of the teaching values of critical thinking and liberal education, as well as the idea of promotion based on merit and research outputs”, she said.
2016-17 rank2015-16 rankInstitutionCountry
12University of OxfordUnited Kingdom
21California Institute of TechnologyUnited States
33Stanford UniversityUnited States
44University of CambridgeUnited Kingdom
55Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUnited States
66Harvard UniversityUnited States
77Princeton UniversityUnited States
88Imperial College LondonUnited Kingdom
99ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ZurichSwitzerland
=1013University of California, BerkeleyUnited States
=1010University of ChicagoUnited States
To view full article : https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/world-university-rankings-2016-2017-results-announced

Thursday, 22 September 2016

The Difference Between Data Analysis and Data Modeling

The Difference Between Data Analysis and Data Modeling

In today’s information rich world, we are seeing more and more data-related analysis skills in business analysis jobs. Some data skills are critical for business analysts while others are better suited to other job functions, such as data analyst, financial analyst, reporting analyst, marketing analyst, and product management.
In this article, we’ll look at the set of skills required for both data analysis and data modeling, describe how data modeling can require some data analysis, and explain how skilled business analysts complete this level of analysis without technical data analysis skills.

Data Analysis Evaluates the Data Itself

Data analysis is a set of tools and techniques to gain insight from an organization’s data. A data analyst might hold the following job responsibilities:
  • Create and analyze meaningful reports (possibly using a third-party reporting, data warehousing, or business intelligence system) to help the business make better decisions.
  • Merge data from multiple data sources together, as part of data mining, so it can be analyzed and reported on.
  • Run queries on existing data sources to evaluate analytics and analyze trends.
Data analysts can be expected to have hands-on access to the organization’s data repositories and use technical skills to query and manipulate the data. They may also be skilled in statistical analysis and probably pursued some math classes in higher education.
Common alternative job titles for this type of role include Report Analyst, Data Warehousing Analyst, Business Intelligence Analyst, or even Product/Marketing Analyst. The common thread among this diverse set of job titles is that each role is responsible for analyzing a specific type of data or using a specific type of tool to analyze data.

Data Modeling Evaluates How an Organization Manages Data

In contrast, data modeling is a set of tools and techniques to understand and analyze how an organization should collect, update, and store data. Data modeling is a critical skill for a business analyst that is involved with discovering, analyzing, and specifying changes to how software systems create and maintain information.
A data modeler might:
  • Create an entity relationship diagram to visualize relationships between key business concepts.
  • Create a conceptual-level data dictionary to communicate data requirements that are important to business stakeholders.
  • Create a data map to resolve potential data issues for a data migration or integration project.
A data modeler would not necessarily query or manipulate data or be involved in designing or implementing databases or data repositories.

Data Modeling Can Require Some Data Analysis

You often need to analyze data as part of making data modeling decisions, and this means that data modeling can include an element of data analysis. You can accomplish a lot here with very basic technical skills, such as the ability to run simple database queries. This is one reason that you can see a technical skill like SQL in a business analyst job description.

Learn more with PHI Learning's Microsoft Excel 2013 : Data Analysis and Business Modelling . Buy now online : https://phindia.com/bookdetails/microsoft-excel-2013-winston-wayne-l--isbn-OTc4LTgxLTIwMy00OTYwLTU=
Microsoft Excel 2013